Some history of Land Rover gearboxes
Manual gearboxes from inception through 2000
The gearbox used in series Land Rovers was first used by Rover in 1932. This gearbox has undergone several modifications since then but is still basically the original design. This gearbox was considered advanced and strong when it was introduced and was finally discontinued because it could no longer be modified to hold up to the power and weight of newer Land Rovers.
From 1948 (first LR production) to 1950 the gearbox had permanent 4WD with a freewheel device in the front prop shaft. From 1951 Rover fitted a transfer case with the now well known 'yellow and red knobs' right up through series III.
The dipstick and top oil fill disappeared with the introduction of the "B" suffix gearbox. At that time the transfer case intermediate gear shaft diameter was increased for additional strength. In the autumn of 1963 the gearbox ratios and transfer case low gear ratio was changed with the introduction of the "C" suffix (See my gear ratio web page for actual ratio numbers of the different series and Coiler gearbox & transfer cases).
In the Autumn of 1966 Rover introduced the '1 ton' 109" with the 6 cylinder petrol engine (A small number of 4 cyl models were made in 1970/71) . The 1 ton version had a lower ratio gearbox and transfer case to accommodate carrying a heavier load, and to compensate for the 9.00x16 tyres that came stock under the 1 ton model. One ton models also had ENV axles instead of the standard rover type. The 109 forward control Land Rovers used the same gearbox and transfer case.
The factory built a small number of all syncro series IIA gearboxes just prior to converting the box into the series III gearbox. The all syncro series IIA gearboxes can be identified by a "S" prefix on the stamped number located on the transmission top cover. Since top covers can move about when multiple gearboxes are rebuilt, and a IIA gearbox is most likely to be rebuilt in the earlier documented style, the 'S' stamp on the top cover does not guarantee the gear box under the top cover is still all syncro.
The Series III gearbox has syncro in all gears as well as lower first and reverse gear ratios. The transfer case remained the same as was used on the late IIA. Series IIA gearboxes are generally considered to be stronger and longer lasting than early series III gearboxes (The ones imported into North America). Though a lot of this conception may have to do with people's shifting habits.
There was a final change made to the gearbox about half way through the series III production (After Rover left North America). These late series III gearboxes are considered by some to be the strongest of the Series Land Rover gear boxes.
In general the Series gearbox is considered to be strong enough for about 120 HP. If you install an engine with more HP consider updating the transmission.
The all syncro transmission has a reputation of being less robust than the earlier versions mostly because they do not hold up to quick shifting. The syncros must come to a stop when the shifter goes through the neutral position if the syncros are to last. When shifting an all syncro gearbox it is advised to hesitate just slightly in the centre of the 'H' pattern.
Gearbox and transfercase ratio charts
Now for the newer gearboxes:
This section is largely a rewording of an e-mail Mike Nieuwoudt published on the za-lro (Southern Africa) e-mail list. It is used with permission.
The "recent" history of LR main gearboxes goes roughly as follows:
In the beginning when Rover needed a stronger gearbox for the new Range Rover and the 101 V8s they developed the LT95. During this time Rover was part of British Leyland so the LT stands for Leyland Transmission. "95" stands for the distance between the main and lay shafts in mm.
The LT 95 was a robust four speed gearbox with the transfer case built into the same enclosure (but they have different fluid reservoirs). One of the nice things about the LT95 was that there were a number of transfer case ratios available and you did not need to pull the box to change them. The bad thing is that it is a four speed gearbox and Rover decided that they needed a fifth gear for highway driving. The gearbox was used on Range Rover through 1983, all 109 Stage 1 V8, all 101 and on 1983 and 1984 V8 Nineties and One Tens.
Starting with 1984 models Rover abandoned the LT95 four speed gearbox and went to five speed gearboxes, the LT77 and the LT85. The LT77 is the lighter duty of the pair. The LT85 was used on the V8 versions of the Ninety and One Ten. Since the LT77 is a 2WD passenger car gearbox, Rover added the LT230 transfer case for full time 4WD. (LT230? Yes, 230 mm parallel spacing between input and output shafts!)
1984 through 1990 When Rover (still part of British Leyland) decided to go to a five speed gearbox they picked the existing LT77 for use in certain vehicles. The LT77 is an updated version of an old Jaguar gearbox that found its way into current model British cars manufactured by British Leyland. Yes the distance between the main and lay shafts is 77 mm. There were two version of this gearbox. The earlier version is known as the short stick version. The later version, introduced around 1988 is known as the long stick version.
The Range Rover received the LT77 in 1984 because it was less expensive than the new LT85 and considered strong enough for the 3.5L V8 to use as a street cruising gearbox. The four cylinder Ninety and One Ten also received the LT77. When the Discovery was introduced it got the LT77 as well.
1984 through 1991: The LT85 (85 mm shaft spacing) was used in all V8 110 and 90 Land Rovers. The LT85 was originally designed under contract by Land Rover for Santana in Spain and was considered to be a strong working gearbox. Rover purchased LT85 gearboxes directly from Santana. It is also known as the Spanish Box. This gearbox was used as originally designed until 1988. A cost reduced, lighter weight, divided case version of the LT85 was introduced in 1988 and used through 1991. The main short coming of the divided case version was its main and lay shaft bearings. The loading on the bearings in 5th gear caused frequent gearbox failure when cruising for long periods of time under high throttle. There was also a bearing quality problem at one stage of manufacture and the gearbox was sensitive to the type of oil used.
In 1991 the relationship between Rover and Santana ended and the LT85 was no longer available to Rover. They needed to find a quick short term solution while they developed a new stronger gearbox.
1991 through 1993 The LT77S was introduced to the Defender V8 line and all models using the Tdi engine as an interim replacement for the no longer available LT85. The LT77S was a strengthened version of the LT77. The 'S' on the LT77S stands for 'Synchromesh'...it was modified for a 'smoother gear change'. The bell housings and input shafts of the LT77S differ between the V8 and Tdi due to Tdi's more aft location.
1994 and newer: The R380 box was introduced as brand new LR gearbox across the entire Land Rover and Range Rover product lines. The R380 is a radically reworked LT77 (The 1940's Jag gearbox remember) with improved main shaft bearing arrangements that provided an overall strengthening of the box. The R380 name stands for "Rated to 380 Nm input". But the R380 still has the LT77's 77 mm shaft spacing. Since Rover was no longer part of British Leyland the LT prefix was abandoned.
The V8 and Tdi R380 gearboxes have different bell housings and primary input shafts. They will interchange by swapping these parts.
The R380 quickly got a bad name from gear problems and accelerated main shaft spline wear where it mates with the LT230 transfer case.
The LT230 accelerated main shaft spline wear problem had been present on all previous LT230 equipped Land-Rovers, irrespective of the gearbox it was mated to. This design problem was kept low key until a lot of customers complained about R380 problems.
A number of different fixes, such as slingers and special transfer case input shafts have been added to try solve the LT230 problem.
A little Automatic history
1982: the Chrysler 3 speed automatic transmission was introduced into the Range Rover product line.
1988: The Range Rover is offered with EFI and the ZF H4 four speed automatic transmission.
Somewhen in the near future: Land Rover will likely use tried and true bullet proof Ford gearboxes and leave their ancient, weak, many times reworked old Jag gearbox behind.
Š 1997, 2001 TeriAnn Wakeman. All rights reserved. Web site design by Marigold Ltd
We supply fully reconditioned manual gearboxes and transfer boxes from stock. This section also includes a range of gearbox Service Kits, comprising the most commonly needed parts - synchro rings, bearings, oil seals & gaskets - for a straightforward gearbox overhaul. We have avoided listing every single component associated with manual gearboxes, because there is a point beyond which DIY gearbox repair is no longer cost-effective, and replacement with an off-the-shelf reconditioned unit would probably be cheaper. Also, since gearboxes are large and fairly complex, replacement may prove simpler in the long run. Nevertheless, if there is an item which you require that is not listed, please contact our sales department.
To identify the type of gearbox/transfer box fitted to your Range Rover, refer to the serial number stamped on the unit itself:
Only one type of 4-speed manual gearbox is fitted - the LT95 unit - with integral transfer box.
The 5-sp gearbox, introduced in 1983, is the LT77 unit, with a serial number which begins 52A.(The serial number of 5-sp boxes is stamped on the main body of the unit, on the lower right-hand side. The number begins with the identification prefix, according to the engine type, followed by the actual serial number and finally, a suffix letter; either D, E, F, G or H). With the introduction of diesel engines in April 1986, serial numbers for the LT77 5-sp begin 53A for V8 and 54A for diesel. In December 1991, the LT77 5-sp was replaced by the LT77S. Gearbox numbers are still 53A for V8 and 54A for VM diesel, but with the addition of 55A for Tdi engines. The LT77S 5-sp was replaced in March 1994 by the R380 5-sp box. As before, identification numbers begin 53A and 55A for V8 and Tdi respectively, but now with a suffix 'J'. All 5-sp gearboxes have separate transfer boxes.
Rover Transfer gear box
The 4-sp gearbox, fitted to all manual Range Rovers from 1970 to 1983, has a transfer box which is integral with the gearbox assembly and is, therefore, inseparable from it. The 5-sp manual gearbox, introduced in July 1983, has a separate transfer box as follows:
1983 to approx. 1984 models are fitted with Land Rover's LT230R unit, which is gear-driven and incorporates a manually selectable diff-lock.
1984 (approx.) to Oct 1988 models are fitted with Land Rover's LT230T unit, similar to the LT230R but with taper bearings on the intermediate shaft instead of the previously used needle roller bearings.
Oct 1988 onwards models are fitted with a Borg Warner chain-driven transfer box, incorporating a viscous differential lock.
Automatic models also have separate transfer boxes, as follows:
3-sp autos are fitted with either the LT230R or LT230T transfer boxes.
4-sp autos to Sept 1988 are fitted with the LT230T transfer box.
4-sp auto vehicles from Oct 1988 onwards are fitted with the Borg Warner chain-driven transfer box.
This section includes fully reconditioned transfer gearboxes, as well as the components associated with the transfer box, such as the speedo cable. Also included is the parking brake, since this operates on the rear of the transfer box rather than the rear wheels, as is conventional. As with the main gearbox, we have only listed a limited selection of internal components, because repair is rarely as cost-effective as replacement with a recon unit.
Identification of the transfer box fitted to your Range Rover is fairly straightforward:
4-sp. All 4-sp manual vehicles have an integral transfer box.
5-sp/LT230R. LT230R transfer boxes fitted to 5-sp vehicles have a serial number (located on the rear lower face of the transfer box) which begins 15D.
5-sp/LT230T. LT230T transfer boxes fitted to 5-sp vehicles have a serial number beginning 27D or 28D.
5-sp/Borg Warner. Vehicles fitted with the BW transfer box are easily identified from the transfer gear lever inside the car, which has a simple fore & aft plane instead of the H-gate of earlier vehicles.
3-sp Auto/LT230R. LT230 transfer boxes fitted to 3-sp auto vehicles have a serial no. beginning 14D.
3-sp Auto/LT230T. LT230T transfer boxes fitted to 3-sp autos have a serial no. beginning 26D.
4-sp Auto/LT230T. 4-sp auto vehicles with the LT230R transfer box have a serial no. beginning 28D
4-sp Auto/Borg Warner. These vehicles are easily identified by the transfer gear lever inside the car, which has a simple fore & aft plane instead of the H-gate of earlier vehicles.
The high-gear ratios of the transfer boxes are as follows:
14D (Auto) 1.003:1
15D (Manual) 1.192:1
26D (Auto) 1.003:1
28D (Man & auto)1.222:1
Borg Warner (Man & auto) 1.206:1
13D00001 LT230T 4 cyl petrol / diesel
14D (Auto)LT230R 1.003:1
15D (Manual) LT230R 1.192:1
20D00001 LT230T 4 cyl petrol / diesel 1.6:1
22D00001 LT230T 4 cyl 1.4:1
25D00001 LT230T V8
26D (Auto) LT230T 1.003:1
27D (Manual)LT230T 1.192:1
28D00001 LT230T V8 1.2:1 (Man & auto) 1.222:1
32D00001 LT230T V8 1.2:1
38D00001 LT230Q V8 1.2:1
43D00001 LT230Q Td5
Borg Warner (Man & auto) LT230T 1.206:1
All stock LT 230"s have a low ratio of 3.321, the following list refers to the high range ratio.
12D = 1.667 LT 230R
13D = 1.410 LT 230R
14D = 1.003 LT 230R
15D = 1.192 LT 230R
20D = 1.667 (2.5 N/A 110),
22D = 1.410 (all 4Cyl 90/110 bar above),
25D = 1.410 (V8 110 LT 85),
26D = 1.003 (RR Classic 3 speed auto),
27D = 1.192 (early RR Classic),
28D = 1.222 (RR and Disco I),
29D = 1.192 (V8 90 LT 85),
32D = 1.222
34D = 1.410 (2.0 Disco I),
36D = 1.211
38D = 1.211
40D = 1.211 (NAS/Japan 90&Disco),
41D = 1.211 (Disco II, diff lock stud),
42D = 1.211 (Disco II, diff lock stud),
43D = 1.410 (90/110 TD5),
57D = 1.410 (90/110 TD5),
61D = 1.211,
62D = 1.211,
68D = 1.211,
69D = 1.211,
70D = 1.211 (Disco II, no diff lock),
LT 230 Transfer case comparisons
1.003 > 1.222 = 17.92% Drop
1.003 > 1.410 = 28.86% Drop
1.003 > 1.667 = 39.83% Drop
1.222 > 1.003 = 21.80% Raise
1.222 > 1.410 = 13.33% Drop
1.222 > 1.667 = 26.70% Drop
1.410 > 1.003 = 40.57% Raise
1.410 > 1.222 = 15.38% Raise
1.410 > 1.667 = 15.41% Drop
1.667 > 1.003 = 66.20% Raise
1.667 > 1.222 = 36.41% Raise
1.667 > 1.410 = 18.22% Raise
For those considering a ratio change the following may prove useful.
MPH per 1000 rpm = 2.976D/ MTR
D Tyre diameter in inches (more accurate to use 2 x rolling radius)
M Typical 5 speed manual box, select a ratio 1st 3.60 These ratios will vary a little between box types 2nd 2.11 3rd 1.40 4th 1.00 5th 0.77 Rev 3.43
T Transfer ratio select a ratio
High 1.003 1.222 1.410 1.667 Low 3.321
R Differential select a ratio 4.70 S 4.11 L 3.54 S L Special
Discovery II ja IIA
If you have the diff lock stud on your unit you will only require the linkage parts, to determine this you will need to find the transfer case serial number and check it starts with
41D LT 230SE
42D. LT 230SE
If it starts with
then you will need the diff lock parts to go in the transfer case.
vaata lisaks http://www.aulro.com/afvb/good-oil/39956-cdl-d2s.html
Lisainfoyt LT230 kastide kohta:
http://www.disgruntledgoat.com/content/ ... F4HP22.php
Nati kriitikat ka:
GFT MT-82 Gearbox
'07 Defender Transfer case
Transmission GFT MT-82 six speed manual
Full time four wheel drive
(high/low) : 1 Overall Gearing
1st 5.443 23.334/62.988
2nd 2.839 12.171/32.854
3rd 1.721 7.378/19.916
4th 1.223 5.243/14.153
5th 1.000 4.287/11.572
6th 0.742 3.181/8.587
Reverse 4.935 21.156/57.109
Final drive ratio : 1 3.540
High range transfer box ratio 1.211
Low range transfer box ratio 3.269
The PG1 Gearbox demystifying the codes and ratios
http://www.mgf.ultimatemg.com/group1/in ... /index.htm
https://www.autoexpress.co.uk/land-rove ... ansfer-box
https://www.lrukforums.com/threads/seri ... ts.205971/
This is a guide to the main differences that I have found (by reading, and some doing, and by asking questions on this forum) between the 1 Ton gearbox and the "normal" LT76 for the Series III. Most idiots' guides are written for idiots. This one differs in that it was written by an idiot, which is why the position of the apostrophe in the title is correct. Treat the information herein with suitable caution.
I have included remarks on differences between the different gearbox suffixes because, of course, theses are relevant to 1 Ton owners too.
All of this information is available elsewhere, none of it is my original work. If you find a discrepancy between what I've written here and some other authority assume that I've got it wrong.
1 Ton vs non-1 Ton differences:
No, this isn't about Chinese soups.
The mistake that I made when I started stripping an unknown gearbox for a rebuild was to ignore the transfer box until the very end of the strip down. If you look at the WSM, page 37-14, section 37.29.28 it tells you how to decide if you have an all-helical gear transfer box, or a helical-and-spur transfer box.
I erroneously assumed that the all-helical was the standard, later, transfer box and that the helical-and-spur transfer box is an older, more simple design. I was wrong.
It seems that all normal gearboxes use helical-and-spur transfer boxes (WSM page 37-18 , section 37.29.28) and that if you have the all-helical flavour, you're looking at a 1-Ton gearbox, like mine.
The main points are that the inner gubbins in the transfer case are radically different. The parts on the mainshaft that interface with the transfer box are very different. The overall gearing on the 1 Ton gearbox assembly is lower than for normal models; and ordinary overdrives, and high-ratio transfer gear sets, cannot be used to achieve a higher gearing.
So, really, the only folk who would want a 1 Ton gearbox are people who want to rebuild a 1 Ton.
Different Series III Gearbox Suffices:
In essence, suffix A boxes have a few of their own quirks.
Suffix B and C gearboxes are pretty much of a muchness except that during suffix C, the layshaft design changed while, unhelpfully, retaining the same part number.
suffix D gearboxes moved over to ECM gears, which are supposed to be stronger.
You cannot put ECM gears in with an early layshaft.
You can put ECM gears in a late suffix C gearbox, if you also change the 1st/2nd selector shaft. The WSM explains all of this on page 37-20, and tells you how to determine what kind of layshaft you have.
I believe that it is possible to up-rate earlier gearboxes to use a late-type layshaft but it's beyond my competence. I mention this because you might find yourself working on an apparently early gearbox that has been up-rated to D specification by a gearbox specialist.
There now follows a walk through the parts manual, looking at the important differences that I've been able to find. The reference numbers refer to the original microfiche pictures, from the parts manual.
1H 02 1RE 110
No significant differences apart from the 2.6 petrol version, which uses a different bell housing.
1H 03 1RE 111
All the same
1H 03 1RE 109
Suffix A gearboxes use a different casing to all others
Minor changes in drain plug from some D-suffix boxes onwards
1H 04 1RE 164
No difference between 1 Ton and "standard" versions. However, the gears changed from suffix D onwards. The primary pinion / constant gear assembly and the 3/4 synchro for pre-D and D-onward ECM gears are different and are not interchangeable.
606880 primary pinion. Use RTC2684 from suffix D onwards
FRC1758 3/4 synchro. Use FRC6996 from suffix D onwards
1H 04 1RE 164 & 1H 04 1RE 165
See remarks regarding D and pre-D gears above. As far as 1 Ton vs standard gearbox differences are concerned, different mainshafts are used and many of the rear mainshaft components differ too.
From the rear end forward....
576725 mainshaft 1 Ton uses 576726
217477 castellated nut 1 Ton uses 521633
217476 locking tab washer 1 Ton uses 521634
501501 washer 1 Ton uses 521636
218244 mainshaft gear 1 Ton uses 522017
502482 distance piece 1 Ton uses 521852
232415 oil thrower - an alternate part (FRC5116) is used for the transfer box deployed with late-D gear boxes.
236305 oil seal - same
RTC1948 circlip - same
FRC5115 bearing housing - same
1645 bearing - same
9960 circlip - same
576735 thrust washer -same
576734 bush -same
591362 mainshaft first gear: for suffix C boxes, use FRC2056; for suffix D, FRC3201
591364 synchro cone - same
608283 inner+outer member: for suffix B & C, use RTC2195; for suffix D, RTC2685
503805 } plates, springs, ball bearings. All the same.
RTC1979 pin - same
6405 pin - same
591364 synchro cone - same
267572 thrust washer - same, choose 267572 to 267575 as required for thickness
591363 2nd gear - same for 1 Ton. Use FRC2673 from suffix D onwards
FRC4076 bush - same
FRC4077 bush - same
556010 3rd gear - same for 1 Ton. Use FRC8179 from suffix D onwards
RTC1962 washer - same. Use 50702 or 50703 if greater thickness needed.
RTC1957 circlip -same
6397 bearing - same
Layshaft Gears and Reverse
1H05 1RE 167 & 1H05 VS1 043
No differences between the "standard" and "1 Ton" versions.
However, suffix A gearboxes use substantially different parts to the others,
suffix B uses a unique layshaft cluster (FRC1691)
suffix C onwards use layshaft cluster FRC2084
See remarks in the preamble regarding layshaft changes during suffix C production.
Suffix A gearboxes may have been fitted with a reverse gear modification kit.
1H 07 1RE 113 & 1H 07 5RE 167
The only difference I can see is that the gear cluster changes for 1 Ton models.
533080 intermediate gear cluster fits everything except 1 Ton variants.
539828 is for the 1 Ton gear box.
1H 07 1RE 113, 1 H 07 5RE 167, 1H 08 1RE 114 & 1H 08 5RE 168
Apart from the speedometer drive components, there are virtually no parts which are interchangeable between the normal and the 1 Ton versions.
1H 09 1RE 115
As far as I can tell, the transfer cases are all the same, despite the different internals. The only variation appears to be that the transfer case was altered during suffix D production and late D variants have different bottom plates and drain plugs
Rear Mainshaft Bearing Housing
1 H09 1RE 116
1 Ton and normal gearboxes use different bearings and a different housing. There do not seem to be any suffix-dependent variations, however.
Front Output Shaft and Housing
Parts all look to be interchangeable between suffixes and from normal variants to 1 Ton gearboxes, with the exception of the dust cover and its fixings.
The standard part is 266956 but the 1 Ton uses a 512760 dust cover.
I hope this helps someone else. Please feel free to point out ant errors or omissions, for which I apologize in advance.